We conducted a randomized, controlled preliminary trial of a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program in a community sample of women with clinical and subclinical symptoms. Verbal, written, and behavioral exercises designed to dissuade objectification and maladaptive social comparison were added to the traditional content of the Body Project prevention program. Program efficacy was compared to … [Read more…]
The extant literature on personality and psychopathology indicates effortful control mechanisms are theoretically related to executive functioning. The present study examines the role of conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and grit in performance on the Test of Attentional Vigilance (TOAV) in a sample of male (n = 27) and female (n = 23) adults. Researchers hypothesized conscientiousness … [Read more…]
The cerebellum is a brain region that is associated with proprioception (the ability to sense the position of limbs in space), and has a protracted developmental period. Research suggests that postnatal development of the Purkinje cell (PC) layer in the cerebellum of rodents is dependent on neural activity. PC development is characterized by polyinnervation of … [Read more…]
Psychotic disorders are among the most devastating mental illnesses because of severe positive (hallucinations, delusions, etc.) and negative (social withdrawal, amotivation, etc.) symptoms that have detrimental impacts on the lives of sufferers. There are a range of neurochemical and structural abnormalities identified in the brains of psychosis sufferers. These abnormalities are thought to develop and … [Read more…]
The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in mean R wave amplitude across 5 experimental paradigms among women with bulimia nervosa (n=12), women with subclinical binge/purge symptoms (n=20), and asymptomatic women (n=20) in order to assess risk for ventricular cardiac dysfunction across groups. Specifically, mean R wave amplitude was assessed via 3-lead … [Read more…]
Inadvertent plagiarism, also known as cryptomnesia, involves being presented with another person’s idea and then reproducing it later, believing it to be a new idea. Although this type of plagiarism is unintentional and is usually completely unconscious, it can still have serious consequences. Though inadvertent plagiarism has been studied before, the degree of familiarity between … [Read more…]
Evaluative conditioning occurs when a person changes how he or she views a previously neutral stimulus. Because EC changes how people consider previously neutral stimuli, it takes a central role in helping us understand how different human preferences develop, and it is thus very important to research. The aspect of evaluative conditioning that this paper … [Read more…]
What are the psychological implications on child survivors of the Rwandan genocide? The Rwandan genocide of 1994 was one of the most brutal massacres in history with over a million people killed in less than 100 days. Some of the outcomes of this for the still living are multiple cases of psychological trauma, incidents of … [Read more…]
A study was conducted to assess the correlation of the personality attributes of proactive personality and grit with success, procrastination, and future planning. There is very little current research on personality variables such as proactive personality and grit in the college setting. Proactive personality is characterized by taking initiative and acting as opposed to reacting … [Read more…]
The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive and affective biases to weight-classified 4 visual stimuli in women with binge/purge symptoms (n=21) versus asymptomatic women (n=16). Specifically, we examined mean HR deceleration (an indicator of cognitive orienting response), negative affect, positive affect, sadness, and guilt to control, underweight, normal weight, and overweight visual … [Read more…]
Sociosexual orientation serves as a measure of how restricted or permissive individuals are in their sexual attitudes, behaviors, and desires. Researchers have explored how both sociosexual orientation and sensation seeking affect interpersonal attraction, but no previous research has explored these variables and their effects together.
The purpose of the present study was to examine psychophysiological reactions to state self-objectification and clothing-related distress as a function of gender. We examined negative affect, positive affect, guilt, and heart rate (HR) at 6-second and 5-minute recording intervals across baseline, non-clothing control, swimsuit (high objectification), tracksuit (low objectification), and cologne conditions in a sample … [Read more…]
The last two decades have seen a drastic rise in the prevalence of so-called “third-wave therapies.” These new psychological therapies build on and/or reject entrenched therapies, in particular Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy (CBT), the most common psychological therapy today. Of these “third-wave therapies,” the one that has received the most attention is Acceptance and Commitment … [Read more…]
In this study, the researchers analyzed the age preferences of approximately 480 heterosexual Match.com members. It was predicted that males would seek females who were younger than themselves and females would seek males who were older than themselves.
Previous studies demonstrate that body composition (specifically the amount of body fat) influences autonomic function. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for energetic action (e.g., increases in heart rate and blood pressure) while the parasympathetic nervous system has antagonistic actions promoting relaxation. Overweight individuals tend … [Read more…]
This paper examines the relationship between racism, stress, and health disparities between Black and White Americans. Health disparities between Black and White Americans are a pressing issue in the United States. Blacks experience more severe and higher rates of a number of negative health outcomes than Whites experience, such as earlier development of hypertension, higher … [Read more…]
Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon in our society, resulting in self-help books and thousands of people that continue to procrastinate daily. Yet the question still remains: why do people procrastinate even when they know that it could potentially harm their chances of success? Given that approximately ninety-five percent of college students reported procrastinating during their … [Read more…]
In order to examine the influence of affect on decision-making, experimenters assessed performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) as a function of affective prime type. Primes were positive, negative, or neutral affective images. Subjects in the exposure phase were prompted to view and rate neutral target images immediately following subliminally masked affective primes.
The number of inmates with severe mental disorders in correctional facilities has been increasing at an alarming rate. Individuals with mental conditions appear in courts in much higher frequencies than in emergency rooms or psychiatric clinics. This seems to be the result of a mental health policy, which states that a person with mental disorder(s) … [Read more…]
Previous research has indicated that proactivity may be an important personality trait in determining a number of behavioral outcomes that might otherwise appear to be results of environmental factors. The current study investigated the relationship between proactive personality and academic success as well as stress among college students.
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by excessive consumption of food in a short period of time accompanied by feelings of loss of control and purging behaviors, occurring at least twice a week and persisting for a minimum of three months. Women with BN also exhibit autonomic dysfunction as evidenced by hypervagal tone and subsequently increased … [Read more…]
The small town of Tremont experienced a traumatic event at the high school this past school year. The repercussions of this event were felt everywhere in this small community. This qualitative study examines how two female students at the junior high school responded to this event by performing gender through the expression of personal grief.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of the 9/11 terror attack on dating preferences. Terror management theory states that after exposure to mortality salience, people increase stereotypical thinking and intergroup bias between groups. It was hypothesized that after the 9/11 terror attack, people would become more egocentric when seeking a dating … [Read more…]
This study offers findings from a four-month long qualitative inquiry, through my student teaching experience, which examined the influence that gender ideologies exercised in the high school vocal music classroom. Through classroom observation, this study looked at the various ways that two adolescent boys in a small-town, working-class American high school constructed masculine identity. Specifically, … [Read more…]
Humans base their identity at least partly in the social groups of which they are members. The presence of competition or conflict between groups can lead the “in-group” to feel that protecting its identity requires self-distinguishment through hostile behavior towards the “out-group.” When these in-groups behave aggressively towards out-groups, members must either conform or sacrifice … [Read more…]
Existing research indicates many women experience significant psychological distress when trying on clothing, especially swimwear. This effect appears to be less pronounced in men.
Why does HIV-related stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Kenya continue even though the battle against HIV has being going on for more than twenty years? By reviewing literature which explains the causes and mechanisms of stigma, two personal case studies of HIV families, and lessons from existing stigma reduction interventions, the purpose … [Read more…]
The objectification of women and girls pervades most aspects of American culture including mass media communication, interpersonal communication, and the design, development, and marketing of consumer products.
Past research has revealed that youth in low income neighborhoods engage in higher rates of risky sexual activity than those in more affluent neighborhoods.
The operas of Richard Wagner have been mined since their premieres for their psychological content and possible interpretations.
John Stuart Mill explores the notion of individual autonomy and a citizen’s freedom from government interference in cases of self-regarding actions.
Past research has found that gay men experience body dissatisfaction with a desire to be thin and have lean muscle mass, whereas straight men often do not experience this body dissatisfaction (Levesque & Vichesky, 2006).
Computer-mediated communication is defined as communication that occurs over the internet and involves the use of a computer. Despite outward appearances, computer-mediated communication and face-to-face communication may be similar in some respects.
A review of current research regarding adolescent alcohol and cigarette use and family structure was conducted. The current research states a higher likelihood of substance use in adolescents in non-traditional family structures.
The typical lifespan of adults is extending into an age range when dementia disorders are likely to appear, and it has become increasingly likely that a person will be thrust into a position that involves caring for an elderly parent or demented spouse. This change in role is stressful for the new caregiver, creating a … [Read more…]
Existing literature fails to comprehensively identify factors contributing to the comorbid relationship between eating disorders and unipolar depression.
The evolution of mass media and the constant display of ordinary people on television have revolutionized the programs that we now watch. Most of us question the “reality” of these programs, but we do not argue their entertainment values; this project examines the popular phenomenon of reality TV as a genre in popular culture.
In the field of health psychology it has been well documented that experiences with discrimination, whether blatant or furtive, can result in negative physical and psychological reactions such as increased blood pressure, heart rate, susceptibility to illness, low self-esteem, and depression.
Beginning at very young ages children begin to see their world as divided between two genders and sexes. The pervasive cultural impact of gender and sex has lead to an impressive amount of research on gender development in children.
Many factors influence the social and academic components of children’ s education; however, the focus of this study is to address how a child may be impacted both socially and academically by specific factors such as: immigration, living in a single parent household, and basic physiological needs not being met.
In my presentation I will summarize the research project from my internship studying Huntington’ s disease at The University of Iowa Department of Neuropsychiatry.
There are a growing number of children in America who are personally affected by the ongoing war in Iraq.
Exposure to the media thin ideal has led to a host of negative psychological reactions among exposed women including decreases in self-esteem (Irving, 1990) and increases in: 1) eating disorder attitudes and behaviors (Becker, Burwell, Gilman, Herzog, & Hamburg, 2002), 2) body dissatisfaction (Groesz, Levine, & Murnen, 2002), 3) maladaptive social comparison (Tiggemann & Slater, … [Read more…]
This presentation will focus on clinical research in which I participated at the Benton Neuropsychology Lab at The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. This lab is concerned in large part with the effect of brain injury on the cognitive and overall functioning of the individual.
Every student has different influences, factors, beliefs and values that brought them to or are keeping and motivating them in college.
American society and media advocate for ideal body images that are often unattainable through healthy levels of dieting and exercise for both male and female individuals.
Women’ s body dissatisfaction has been consistently and positively correlated with exposure to unrealistic images of women in media. However, is media really to blame for some women’ s negative body images and disordered eating, or is media being wrongfully accused?
The purpose of this study is to investigate the Cornell College PED 101: Lifetime Physical Fitness and Activities course and to explore the relationship between enrollment in the course and aspects of positive behavior change related to fitness and wellness.
The current lack of consistent exercise maintenance among a majority of American adults has resulted in a variety of negative symptoms, including obesity, that has put many individuals at an increased risk for a number of debilitating diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, certain cancers, and cardiovascular diseases, among others.
In the fast-paced society that we live in today many people struggle to get an adequate amount of sleep on a regular basis.